23 Nov 2023, 12:30

Netherlands' future climate policy unclear after far-right’s shock election win

The nationalist and populist party PVV under the leadership of Geert Wilders became the biggest party by far in shock election results in the Netherlands. Wilders will now set out to form a right-wing government, but finding partners remains a hurdle as many parties have in the past ruled out working with the PVV. Wilders's main election message was one of anti-immigration, but he has also had a strong anti-climate action rhetoric, saying he does not want to waste billions on "pointless climate hobbies." After the election, Wilders said that he aims to govern and that he is willing to negotiate with other parties to find compromises. What this means for Dutch climate policy remains unclear, coalition building often takes months, and while the PVV agrees with other right-wing parties on expanding nuclear power, they are more lonesome in their demand to exit the Paris Agreement and keep coal and gas plants open in the country with the highest per capita gas consumption in the European Union. This factsheet gives a breakdown of crucial Dutch climate and energy issues, and the stances of the PVV and its potential coalition partners. [UPDATES to include preliminary election results]
Aerial shot of a Dutch potatoe field. Image by Netherlands Board of Tourism.
Aerial shot of a Dutch potatoe field. Image by Netherlands Board of Tourism.

Preliminary election results

First results show the PVV has won a little less than one-fourth of all the votes in an election turnout of 78.2 percent. A new alliance of the Greens and the Labour Party, led by Frans Timmermans, came in second with around 15 percent of the vote, closely followed by the VVD, the party that led the last four coalition governments.

Many parties, including the VVD, for some time said they would not govern together with the PVV on a national level. Under new leader Dilan Yeşilgöz, the VVD has not ruled out this option. Yeşilgöz said that the ball is currently in Wilders’s court but did not want to repeat her earlier statement that she will not join a coalition with Wilders as prime minister. Other potential coalition partners could be the new party NSC, whose leader Pieter Omtzigt said they want to “take responsibility,” hinting he would be open to talks, and the Farmer-Citizen Movement BBB.

The PVV has a strong electoral base and often came in second or third in previous elections. An Ipsos poll showed that 12 percent of current PVV voters did not vote in the last national election, and 15 percent voted for the VVD last time around.

Wilders said he is willing to negotiate with other parties and to not insist on some of his most controversial stances, like banning mosques and the Quran.

As it is not clear who will form the next government coalition in the Netherlands, the country's future climate policy is also unclear. “In theory, a PVV-led government would mean a big shift in Dutch energy policy because they state that they think climate policy is a waste of money and they want to scrap all renewable energy subsidy schemes,” Sanne de Boer, energy transition analyst at RaboResearch, told Montel.

Political context and timeline

On 7 July 2023, the Dutch government fell after failing to agree on stricter immigration policies. This marked the end of the fourth coalition led by prime minister Mark Rutte, the EU's longest-serving head of government after Viktor Orbán. Rutte has since stepped down as party leader of the right-liberal VVD party. Collapsing coalitions are not uncommon: Cabinet Rutte II - consisting of the VVD and the Labour Party - was the first since 1998 to complete their entire four-year parliamentary term.

High-polling parties disagree on many issues and forming a coalition will probably take a long time.  The Netherlands, like many European countries, has seen increasing political fragmentation and a rise of right-wing populist parties, many of which reject strong climate action.

Timeline of the elections

  • 7 July, 2023: The Dutch government resigns after failing to agree on immigration policies, leading to new national elections.
  • 22 November, 2023: Election day. Dutch voters will elect the members of the House of Representatives, consisting of 150 seats.
  • After the elections: The party with the most votes gets to lead coalition negotiations. This process often takes months. It took a record 299 days to form the latest cabinet Rutte IV.
  • Parties which want to form a government together create a coalition agreement which sets out what the government wants to do and achieve over the next four years.
  • The biggest party determines the prime minister - the last exception of this happened in 1982 - and other ministers or state secretaries are picked from the different coalition parties.
  • Once parties have formed a new cabinet, the king officially appoints all ministers and state secretaries.
  • The new cabinet’s first job is to debate the coalition agreement with the House of Representatives.
  • Until a new government is formed, the outgoing coalition can still make decisions on topics declared as “non-controversial”, which currently includes climate and energy policy.

Climate views of the six highest polling parties

The Dutch electorate can vote for 26 different political parties. Contrary to many other European countries, the Netherlands does not have an electoral threshold, which partly explains the high number of political parties. The party manifestos of the six highest polling parties are highlighted: Groenlinks – PvdA, D66, NSC, VVD, BBB and PVV.  

  • GreenLeft – Social Democrats (GroenLinks – PvdA)
    For this national election, the Greens and the Labour Party formed an alliance presenting one candidate list led by Frans Timmermans, the former European Commissioner for Climate Action. They position themselves as a climate party and insist that big polluters should pay the climate bill.
  • Democrats 66 (D66)
    A social liberal party with progressive social views that is pro-EU and which was part of the previous two coalitions. Party leader Rob Jetten is the outgoing Minister for Climate and Energy Policy. It positions itself as a climate party.
  • New Social Contract (NSC)
    A new political party, launched and led by Pieter Omtzigt, who was a member of the Christian Democrats (CDA) before splitting from them as an independent fraction in 2021. The main focus is on "good governance" and climate plans in NSC’s manifesto mainly focus on affordability for citizens.
  • People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD)
    Centre-right liberal party. The VVD led four different coalitions since 2010. It emphasises that combating climate change should go hand in hand with economic growth.
  • The Farmer–Citizen Movement (BBB)
    A right-wing conservative party with populist tendencies, spearheaded by agricultural interests. BBB became the largest party in all provinces in the March 2023 provincial elections. The party opposes big solar and wind projects and instead emphasises citizen participation in the energy transition.
  • Party for Freedom (PVV)
    The PVV was founded in 2006 and has a strong electoral base. They are a nationalist and populist party. Since 2012, prime minister Mark Rutte ruled out collaboration with the party, but this could change under new VVD leadership. The party is opposed to most climate measures, stating they are unnecessary and too costly.

Climate among top five election issues

About a quarter (24%) of Dutch voters consider climate and sustainability to be one of the most important issues this election, putting climate in fifth place after subjects such as the cost of living and inflation (35%), healthcare (31%), immigration and asylum (29%) and the housing market (28%), shows an Ipsos poll.

The same poll said climate and nitrogen are among the top polarising issues. Some 40 percent of voters do not think the Netherlands should have a leading role in climate policy compared to other countries, while around a quarter support this position (27%). There is also great division on the topic of nitrogen reduction: 30 percent think that livestock numbers should be greatly limited to reduce nitrogen emissions, while 40 percent said they (completely) disagree.

Key climate and energy policy topics ahead of the Dutch elections

Environment: Nitrogen and nature permits

The Netherlands aims to halve nitrogen emissions by 2030 in protected natural areas against critical deposition levels. Nitrogen emissions in the country are among the highest in the world due to its dense population, heavy traffic and intensive agriculture. Much of the focus concerning nitrogen is on its role in polluting land, water and air. However, nitrogen also plays a role in accelerating climate change said researchers Jan Willem Erisman and Wim de Vries, working at Wageningen University and Leiden University. Nitrogen that ends up in soil forms nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas three hundred times more potent than CO2. Nitrogen also helps to combat climate change, by for instance making forests grow faster and blocking solar heat, but in the end the net contribution of nitrogen emissions comes down to 10 percent of global warming, according to De Vries.

The issue of how to reduce deposition has proven to be politically divisive and led to  a breach of trust in the former coalition, when Wopke Hoekstra - then party leader of the Christian Democrats - said in a media interview that the goal of halving nitrogen emissions in 2030 was “not sacred”, despite his party agreeing on the target only a few months earlier.

The so-called nitrogen crisis kicked off in 2019 when the Dutch Council of State ruled that nitrogen reduction policies were inadequate and in violation of European rules. Much of the Dutch economy came to a standstill because permits for barn extensions or road construction, for example, were granted only if it could be proven that natural protected areas would not suffer. A special nitrogen and nature minister was installed in 2022, and a 24-billion-euros nitrogen fund was approved to regulate sustainable agriculture and buy-out schemes for farmers.

The faltering Dutch policies on nitrogen and nature permits have created many uncertain situations. Schiphol, the country’s biggest airport, only recently obtained a nature permit, and over 500 farmers are at risk of having their extension rights revoked because of a report which found that their barn systems do not reduce nitrogen as much as originally thought. The winning parties will have to find agreements on which sectors to prioritise in the upcoming years.

What do political parties say?


  • Uphold the goal to cut nitrogen emissions in half by 2030
  • Subsidies and buy-out schemes need to be less generous


  • Uphold the goal to cut nitrogen emissions in half by 2030
  • Stricter emission standards for large polluting industries are needed with the government playing an active role in reducing nitrogen emissions in these sectors


  • Nitrogen emissions must be significantly reduced by 2035
  • Scrap the nitrogen fund
  • Farmers are given more leeway to decide how to meet emission standards


  • Uphold the goal to cut nitrogen emissions in half by 2030
  • All sectors such as agriculture, mobility and industry, contribute with as little distinction as possible between them
  • Simplifying licensing for nature permits
  • Make it negotiable in Brussels to eventually adjust obligations around protected natural areas


  • The current nitrogen strategy of halving emissions in 2030 must be removed
  • There should not be a separate minister for nitrogen and nature
  • Nitrogen emissions should be reduced via innovation
  • As long as the nitrogen strategy is in place, it must be implemented with people and entrepreneurs in mind


  • No more spending of billions on left-liberal ideological policies like nitrogen
  • Scrap the nitrogen fund

Agriculture: A lot of farming in a small country

The Netherlands is the second largest exporter of agricultural products in the world after the United States. About half of its surface area is used for agricultural purposes. The sector is responsible for 15 percent of carbon emissions and 45 percent of nitrogen deposition. Pollution from agriculture also has negative impacts on biodiversity and water quality, with the Netherlands having the worst water quality of all EU member states. How to reform agriculture is a polarising issue and led to large, sometimes aggressive, protests by farmers in recent years.

The problems surrounding agriculture emissions have long been known but the government has often delayed taking decisive action. For many years, banks encouraged farmers to expand their businesses with loans. The Dutch nitrogen crisis in 2019 sparked a debate around the size of farms and amount of livestock, discouraging this long-promoted expansion.

Rabobank, the second-largest bank in the Netherlands, played a big role in funding these expansions. The bank has been sued by several farmers and an interlocutory ruling in early November agreed with a dairy farmer that the bank should have warned of potentially stricter emissions rules leading to a higher risk of taking out a loan, as reported by newspaper NRC. This ruling will likely have big consequences for Rabobank, as around 80 percent of Dutch dairy farmers are its customers.

Other hot potato issues around agriculture are whether government buyouts of farms should be compulsory, the number of livestock, and the limiting of mega farms. D66 originally proposed a plan to halve the number of livestock, an idea echoed in its previous party manifesto, as well as the one from GroenLinks. For the upcoming elections only the smaller parties put in specific goals in their party manifestos for limiting livestock. The size of farms is another big issue for the next government to tackle: the total number of farms has decreased but the size of the businesses has expanded over the years with an increasing amount of mega farms.

What do political parties say?

PvdA – GroenLinks

  • A substantial reduction of livestock in the Netherlands
  • Committed to an active buyout policy: If not enough farmers participate voluntarily, compulsorily buyouts are possible


  • Agriculture should be climate-neutral by 2040
  • Livestock numbers need to be reduced
  • European agricultural subsidies that the Netherlands can distribute itself will only go to farmers who take steps towards sustainable farming


  • The size of the dairy livestock herd will be slightly smaller than it is now
  • No compulsory buyouts of farmers
  • No new permits for mega farms


  • The Dutch agri-food sector can lead the way in sustainability


  • Stimulate small-scale farming initiatives and large-scale and highly productive agriculture. Both contribute to sustainability in different ways


  • No compulsory buyouts of farmers

Finance: Fossil fuel subsidies

Extinction Rebellion protests against fossil fuel subsidies started in 2020 and, after a highway in The Hague was blocked for 27 consecutive days in September this year, the cabinet agreed to a phase-out plan for fossil fuel subsidies. The plan is likely to be presented in 2024. The decision comes after years of scrambling over the exact amount of fossil fuel subsidies: In 2020, the government came up with a figure of 4.5 billion euros a year, but after independent researchers and environmental groups came up with higher amounts, climate minister Rob Jetten commissioned a study that showed that the Dutch government spends between 39.7 billion and 46.4 billion euros a year on schemes that lead to fossil benefits.

“Of course, we will look critically at what happens next. Should it turn out that politics fails again, we will come back with much more,” said Extinction Rebellion spokesperson Tessel Hofstede.

Overseas fossil fuel subsidies: Backtracking on the Glasgow Statement

The Netherlands backtracked on its Glasgow COP26 promise to end support for international fossil fuel projects by the end of 2022. The government adopted a “transition period” which means projects requested in 2022 can still be approved in 2023. Earlier this year, the Atradius Dutch State Business (ASDB) approved export credit insurance for almost 300 million euros for a large floating oil and gas production facility in Brazil, which will be in operation for 30 years. Other projects are still under consideration.

Besides this loophole, there are other exceptions which will be allowed after 2023 including certain fossil fuel services, existing infrastructure, ports and shipbuilding, power generation in low-income countries, and broadly defined exemptions for projects that contribute to European supply security.

The Netherlands was among 39 countries and institutions that signed the Glasgow pledge during COP26 to end international fossil fuel subsidies. The main countries that continue to support fossil fuel projects include Germany, Italy, Japan and the United States, according to a tracker by Oil Change International.

What do political parties say?


  • Fossil subsidies will be abolished as soon as possible with a concrete plan
  • The biggest polluters should foot the bill


  • Phase out of fossil subsidies and exemptions as soon as possible, preferably Europe-wide and globally


  • National fossil subsidies should be phased out on a European level


  • Not mentioned


  • Not mentioned


  • Not mentioned

Transport: To fly or not to fly?

The Netherlands is well known for being a bicycle-friendly country but is still struggling to decarbonise its transport sector, which is currently responsible for around a quarter of Dutch greenhouse gas emissions. The biggest culprit is aviation, but road and water transport have also barely decarbonised over the years. Mobility was a particularly thorny issue during discussions over climate plans, as largest political party VVD has traditionally championed the interests of car owners. The measures taken by the outgoing government include the mandatory blending of biofuel with petrol, which will increase the price of petrol by a few cents next year, as well as subsidising the purchase of second-hand electric cars and expanding the network of charging stations.

The future of flying is yet another conundrum, with the government at odds with airline KLM and Schiphol Group, which own three airports in the country, over aviation growth. Despite the fall of the cabinet, plans for a flight cap at Schiphol airport - the most important in the country - are being carried forward: In 2024 the number of flights should decrease from 500.000 to 452.500 annually. The outgoing government wants to reduce the number of flights at Schiphol to combat noise pollution and limit damage to the climate, the environment, and the health of local residents. KLM, along with other airlines, filed a lawsuit against the government to prevent the flight cap at one of Europe's busiest airports, but lost an appeal in July this year.

Plans to reduce the number of flights at the largest national airport Schiphol as early as April next year have been shelved following pressure from the European Union and the U.S. government. The planned reduction from 500,000 to 452,500 flights starting in November 2024 is still on the table.

The growth of Schiphol Group is not just a problem in Amsterdam: there is political disagreement over whether an airport in Lelystad should open for commercial flights to relieve Schiphol. This was supposed to happen in 2019, but was delayed due to nitrogen issues.

One of the areas which most parties do agree on is sustainable transport, with broad support for investments in public transport accessibility and bicycle infrastructure. Both D66 and Groenlinks-PvdA propose a nationwide "climate ticket" for public transport, similar to Germany’s flat-rate ticket.

What do political parties say?


  • Air traffic must be cut, the number of flights at Schiphol and Eindhoven airports must be sharply reduced
  • Lelystad airport will not open for commercial flights
  • Only electric vehicles should be sold by 2030
  • Introduce a national climate ticket for 49 euros per month


  • Limit the number of flights at Schiphol airport by scrapping night flights and close the airport between 23.00 and 07.00
  • Lelystad Airport will not open for commercial flights
  • Introduce a national climate ticket to travel in public transport for a fixed price outside of rush hour
  • Incentivise electric vehicles with subsidies and tax breaks


  • Schiphol airport should close at night, the number of flights needed to maintain “network quality” should be critically reassessed
  • Lelystad airport will not open for commercial flights
  • Electric vehicles should contribute more to tax revenues after being heavily subsidised for years


  • Insist on the Schiphol flight cap
  • Lelystad Airport should open for commercial flights
  • Ensure that it continues to make financial sense to drive electric


  • The maximum number of flights to and from Schiphol will be frozen and additional flights will only be possible if it can be shown that there will be less noise pollution and use of environmental space
  • Lelystad Airport will not open for commercial flights
  • Reintroduce the 130 km/h speed limit on highways (currently it is 100 km/h during the day)


  • “Make way for Schiphol”
  • No ban on the sale of fuel cars
  • Increase speed limit to 140 km/h (currently it is 100 km/h during the day)

Future technologies: Hydrogen and CCS

The Netherlands aims to become the hub for green hydrogen in Europe. In Rotterdam, the construction of a hydrogen network has begun, which will connect major industrial regions in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany from 2030 onwards. To scale up the hydrogen market, the government has earmarked 9 billion euros to increase the country's electrolysis capacity - needed to split water into hydrogen and oxygen - and to encourage industry to increasingly use green hydrogen from 2026 onwards.

Next to Rotterdam, Groningen is an important location for the Dutch hydrogen plans. The NorthH2-project was announced in 2020, consisting of a wind farm with a capacity of 3 to 4 GW by 2030 to help produce green hydrogen. Major oil and gas company Shell plays a key role in the Netherlands' hydrogen plans. It is strongly involved in the NorthH2 project and is currently building Holland Hydrogen I in the Rotterdam port, which Shell said will be Europe's largest sustainable hydrogen plant and will be operational by 2025. Investigative journalism platform Follow the Money reported in May 2023 that the 150 million euros subsidy Shell received for Holland Hydrogen I was ineligible under EU rules, but that it got approved by the European Commission after pressure from the Dutch government.

CCS: Mega-project Porthos approved

The carbon capture and storage (CCS) project Porthos was approved by the Council of State last August despite concern over the project’s burdensome nitrogen emissions. The project is expected to be in operation in 2026 and will transport and store CO2 from industry in empty gas fields below the North Sea. Porthos expects to store 2.5 megatonnes of CO2 under the sea every year, 1.5 percent of the Netherland's annual emissions. The Dutch state released two billion euros for the project and the EU declared it a Project of Common Interest, subsiding it with 102 million euros.

Porthos is the first CCS project in the Netherlands. A similar plan by Shell to store CO2 under Barendrecht, a municipality close to Rotterdam, was abandoned about a decade ago due to unrest among citizens.

What do political parties say?


  • No additional subsidy for underground storage of CO2. CCS is a temporary solution that allows big polluters to wait longer to make the switch to renewable energy
  • With our neighbouring countries we build a North Western European hydrogen hub
  • Stimulate green hydrogen only if more sustainable alternatives are not available


  • Production of green hydrogen should be encouraged but, because of its scarcity in the short-term, it should mainly be used for industry, less so for cars and homes
  • The Netherlands can play an important role in producing, as well as importing hydrogen for national and European use
  • Invest in a hydrogen network on land and in the North Sea
  • The use of green hydrogen will become the norm, stimulated by a lower tax rate
  • For the “transition phase” blue hydrogen (using gas and CCS) will also be exploited with a clear end date


  • CCS should not distract from the need to reduce fossil resource use. In the coming years, CCS will be part of the measures that may be needed to meet climate targets
  • The government should make necessary spatial reservations for wind farms and hydrogen production in the North Sea


  • CO2 storage and use play an indispensable role in meeting the climate goals of 2030 and beyond, not just to reduce emissions from industry but also for enabling blue hydrogen
  • Abandon the ceiling for CO2 storage, which is now in place in subsidy scheme SDE++
  • Increased offshore wind power by 2040 should be partly used for green hydrogen
  • The Netherlands should commit to a long-term contract with Norway, switching from blue to green hydrogen in the 2030s


  • Commit to developing infrastructure for hydrogen and CCS


  • Not mentioned

No more Groningen gas: The future of natural gas extraction in the Netherlands

After 60 years, natural gas extraction in Groningen, a northern province, came to an end on 1 October. The extraction sites will not be dismantled until next year to keep open the possibility to restart this winter in case of exceptional circumstances. After peaking at 50 billion cubic metres in 2015, Groningen accounted for 6.5 billion cubic metres of Dutch gas in 2021. The same year, the North Sea accounted for 8.9 billion and 2.7 billion was extracted from small fields.

The Groningen gas field is one of the most densely populated extraction areas in the world and has been a source of controversy due to induced earthquakes and damage to houses. “The interests of the people of Groningen were structurally ignored during gas extraction,” stated a parliamentary inquiry that came out in February 2023. The number of damage claims from citizens increased over the years but the handling of the claims and the the repair and reinforcement of houses were often met with red tape, reluctance, and slow bureaucratic processes.

Groningen gas is exploited by the Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM), in a public-private partnership formed in 1963, in which the state works with oil giants Shell and ExxonMobil in a so-called 'silent partnership'. While the NAM was originally responsible for handling citizen’s damage claims, the government was put in charge in 2018.

The Netherlands had the highest per capita gas consumption in the European Union in 2022, according to the Energy Institute Statistical Review of World Energy. To meet demand, more liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being imported, mostly from the United States, and gas is being extracted from small fields in the North Sea. NAM, meanwhile, is putting pressure on the outgoing cabinet to start drilling under the Wadden Sea off the coast of Friesland, another Northern province, as reported by public broadcaster NOS. The plans are meeting resistance from Friesland nature clubs, while "people are afraid of Groningen conditions”, said Johannes Kramer, mayor of the Noardeast-Fryslân municipality.

What do political parties say?


  • Direct halt to gas extraction in Groningen and the Wadden Sea
  • Ensure that damage settlements in Groningen become easier and more humane
  • NAM shareholders Shell and ExxonMobil must contribute to compensation payments for Groningers
  • There will be a legal ban on the tapping of new gas fields
  • There will be a phase-out path for fossil extraction in Netherlands, including in the North Sea


  • Legally setting the target of permanently stopping gas production in Groningen from 1 October 2024
  • First priorities are strengthening houses and repairing damage
  • Groningen should have a separate minister
  • Security of gas supply should be established by the mandatory filling of gas storage facilities and having long-term contracts for LNG through joint European procurements


  • North Sea gas will guarantee security of supply and affordability for Dutch users
  • In the transition phase of decreasing gas consumption, the government should facilitate long-term contracts for gas and LNG imports to stabilise gas prices
  • Small fields in the North Sea, not the Wadden Sea, should be put into operation. This gas will become available for the security of supply to Dutch households, permits will be issued until 2040 at the latest


  • Stop gas extraction from Groningen
  • Improve the damage and reinforcement operations in Groningen
  • Accelerate safe gas extraction in the North Sea
  • Establish strategic gas reserves for winter


  • No indiscriminate handing out of money in Groningen, the decisions for damage settlements should be made in the region with a facilitating government


  • No gas from Groningen, but more and faster gas and oil extraction in the North Sea
  • Faster damage settlements and strengthening of houses in Groningen
  • Establish long-term contracts for the import of LNG
  • No exports of Dutch gas

Nuclear energy: New reactors?

The current government has plans to expand nuclear power, but these are yet to be approved. Five billion euros have been earmarked in the so-called climate fund to build two new nuclear power plants, and 65 million to accelerate the development of small modular reactors (SMRs). The government said it expects these plants to be ready by 2035 and aims to build them in Borssele, a village in the province of Zeeland, where the only operational Dutch nuclear power plant is located. The government plans to extend the lifetime of the existing Borssele nuclear power plant to allow it to continue operating after 2033.

Most political parties in the Netherlands are in favour of expanding nuclear energy, except for PvdA – GroenLinks, and other left leaning parties. This is a big turning point from a decade ago, as reported by public broadcaster NOS. Experts are critical of the plans. The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) said five billion euros might not be enough to eliminate investments risks. The "Expert Team Energy System 2050”, which advised the government on what a Dutch energy system should look like in 2050, argued that nuclear power will most likely form a relatively small part of the future electricity system, which makes it questionable whether it is a good use of public money.

What do political parties say?


  • No new nuclear power plants
  • Current nuclear power plant Borssele should close as planned
  • Costs for cleaning up nuclear waste should not be placed on the community


  • Nuclear power is needed to have a stable, CO2-free energy supply
  • Continue preparations for the construction of two new power plants and ensure in advance they can be shut down when a cleaner and cheaper sustainable energy system is available and desired by the government
  • Encourage the development of new technologies like thorium reactors and SMRs


  • Prepare for the construction of two more nuclear power plants and actively explore the opportunities for SMRs


  • Construct four big nuclear power plants as soon as possible and develop plans for further nuclear expansion heading towards 2050
  • The government should facilitate the construction for SMRs and invest in thorium
  • Operating nuclear power plant in Borssele should stay open beyond 2033


  • Add new nuclear power plants

Key contacts

When reporting on the Dutch elections, these are key contacts for your research.

Jan Willem Erisman

Professor of Environmental Sustainability within the Institute of Environmental Sciences of Leiden University with expertise on nitrogen issues

Contact: https://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/staffmembers/jan-willem-erisman#tab-1
Email: j.w.erisman@cml.leidenuniv.nl
Call: +31 71 527 7484

Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB)

The CPB is an independent government agency conducting policy research.

Contact: https://www.cpb.nl/en/contact
Press contact:
Jeannette Duin
Email: J.E.C.Duin@cpb.nl
Call: +31 (0)88 9846163

Press contact: Petra Huijser,
Email: P.A.C.A.Huijser@cpb.nl
Call: +31 6 11141285

Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL)

The national institute for strategic policy analysis in the fields of the environment, nature and spatial planning

Contact: https://www.pbl.nl/en/about-pbl/contact
Press contact:
Mieke Berkers
Email: mieke.berkers@pbl.nl
Call:+316 25068171
Topics: agriculture, food, water, climate, air and energy, nature, rural areas

Press contact: Laura Westendorp
Email: laura.westendorp@pbl.nl
Call: +31625052271
Topics: urbanisation, transport, spatial planning, quality of the local environment, circular economy

Niels Hazekamp

Senior policy advisor on trade finance and climate at NGO Both ENDS, expert on international fossil fuel subsidies

Contact: https://www.bothends.org/en/About-Both-ENDS/Employees/Niels-Hazekamp/
Email: n.hazekamp@bothends.org
Call: +31681906281

Rene Peters

Business Director Gas Technology Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO)

Contact: https://www.tno.nl/en/about-tno/our-people/rene-peters/
Call: +31 88 866 63 40

Sarah de Lange

Professor of Political Pluralism at the Department of Political Science at the University of Amsterdam

Contact: https://www.uva.nl/profiel/l/a/s.l.delange/s.l.delange.html?cb#Profile
Email: S.L.deLange@uva.nl

Willy Baltussen

Agricultural economist working for over 35 years at Wageningen Economic Research. He has a wide knowledge of farm economics, livestock production, agricultural supply chains and their organisation

Contact: https//www.wur.nl/en/persons/willy-ir.-whm-willy-baltussen.htm
Call: +31703358171

Extinction Rebellion Netherlands

Local branch of Extinction Rebellion, an environmental action group

Contact: https://extinctionrebellion.nl/pers-en-nieuws/
Email: media@extinctionrebellion.nl
Call: +31 6 481 70 971 or +31 6 346 30 114

Contacts of political parties

GreenLeft – Social Democrats (GroenLinks – PvdA)

Contact: https://groenlinkspvda.nl/contact/
Email: Barbara Bosma, b.bosma@tweedekamer.nl

Democrats 66 (D66)

Contact: https://d66.nl/contact/persvoorlichting/
Email: Jan Sinnige, j.sinnige@tweedekamer.nl

New Social Contract (NSC)

Contact: https://partijnieuwsociaalcontract.nl/contact
Email: pers@partijnieuwsociaalcontract.nl

People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD)

Contact: https://www.vvd.nl/contact/
Email: vvdvoorlichting@tweedekamer.nl

The Farmer–Citizen Movement (BBB)

Contact: https://boerburgerbeweging.nl/contact/
Email: Via an online contact form

Party for Freedom (PVV)

Contact: https://www.pvv.nl/contact.html
Email: press@pvv.nl

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