• re-dispatch costs

    Re-dispatch measures are interventions into the regular, market-based methods of power generation to avoid or correct grid congestions. A typical example in Germany: when there is high production of wind energy in the north, the cheap power is bought up by energy-intensive consumers, particularly in industrial centres in the south. But the high-voltage transmission grid linking supply with demand is not up to the job of transporting such large volumes of power. To prevent grid congestion, operators (see → Transmission grid operators, TSO) may be forced to take wind turbines offline. However, wind farm operators must still be compensated for the electricity they could have produced, and consumers must still be supplied with the power they have purchased. This means that conventional power plants closer to demand must ramp up their production, and their operators must also be paid. These steps are called re-dispatch measures. In 2015, these measures cost 402.5 million euros (see → grid fees above).

  • recultivation

    (Rekultivierung) When mining of coal is completed, the affected areas must be restored or recultivated. This is a challenge for opencast → lignite mines. See also → greenfield status above.

  • renaturalisation

    (Renaturalisierung) See → recultivation.