A contradictory approach? Germany wants to curb greenhouse gas emissions but at the same time will shut down all of its nuclear power stations, which in the year 2000 had a 29.5 per cent share of the power generation mix. In 2014 the share was down to 15.9 per cent, and by 2022 all nuclear plants are supposed to be offline. The country now seems on track to fill the gap with renewable energy. This factsheet provides the background on Germany’s decision to phase out nuclear energy.
The anti-nuclear movement
Germany has set itself a dual goal with its energy transition, or Energiewende: The country wants to move from fossil fuel-based energy generation to a largely carbon-free energy sector while also phasing out nuclear energy by 2022. What many international observers have portrayed as a panic reaction following the Fukushima-disaster in 2011 actually has a long history and is deeply rooted in German society. Anti-nuclear movements started in Germany in the 1970s when local initiatives organised protests against plans to build nuclear power stations. Rallies and legal challenges against individual projects were supported locally across party lines. In 1975, 28,000 protesters occupied the construction site of a nuclear power plant in Wyhl (in the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg) and managed to stop construction. After the accident at the U.S. nuclear power plant Three Mile Island in 1979, around 200,000 people took to the streets in Hannover and Bonn, demonstrating against the use of nuclear power. More protests followed wherever locations for radioactive waste processing and storage were considered. The anti-nuclear movement was one of the key driving factors behind the foundation of the Green Party (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen) in 1980.
The nuclear catastrophe in Chernobyl (in today’s Ukraine) in April 1986 caused widespread fear of nuclear power and strengthened the anti-nuclear sentiment. A majority of Germans were concerned about the risks of the technology. Most politicians began to stress that nuclear was a “transient” technology but not the future, and after 1989 no new commercial nuclear power stations were built. Public protests continued in the 1990s, mostly against the transport of spent nuclear fuel elements to and from waste processing facilities and prospective waste storage sites (e.g. Gorleben and Schacht Konrad, Lower Saxony).
Nuclear phase-out – opting out and back in again
After the Social Democrats (SPD) and the Green Party won the elections in 1998, the government of Gerhard Schroeder (SPD) reached what became known as the “nuclear consensus” with the big utilities. They agreed to limit the lifespan of nuclear power stations to 32 years. The plan allocated each plant an amount of electricity that it could produce before it had to be shut down. Because nuclear power generation can vary, the plan did not set an exact date for the complete phase-out. But in theory, the last one would have had to close in 2022. New nuclear power plants were banned altogether. The agreement became law in 2002 (Atomgesetz). Two plants (Stade and Obrigheim) were taken offline in 2003 and 2005. The opposition Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and its chairwoman, Angela Merkel, objected to the agreement, calling it a “destruction of national property” that would be revoked if the CDU came to power.
When the CDU/CSU won the elections in 2009 and formed a coalition with the Free Democrats (FDP), they extended the operating time by eight years for seven nuclear plants and 14 years for the remaining ten. This became known as the “phase-out of the (nuclear) phase-out” (Ausstieg aus dem Ausstieg). However, in the wake of the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima, Japan, the Merkel government decided in June 2011 to shut down eight nuclear plants and limit the operation of the remaining nine to 2022. Over 80 per cent of parliamentarians voted for the bill in the Bundestag (federal parliament). Die Linke (Left Party) only objected because it wanted a faster exit and the measure’s inclusion in the constitution.
In March 2015, an opinion poll showed that a large majority (81 percent) of the German population were still in favour of the government’s decision to exit nuclear power. Only 16 percent of those questioned by polling firm Emnid believed the phase-out was wrong. Approval rates were highest among the young and citizens from the west of Germany (See Figure 1).
Distributing the costs and the waste
The nuclear phase-out itself remains uncontested in Germany. But debates about costs have become heated. Utilities complain about the financial burden of shutting down plants earlier than planned. Several legal proceedings are pending, for example with the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) in New York, where the nuclear operator Vattenfall is claiming several billion euros in damages after two of its reactors were shut down in 2011.
E.ON and RWE are sueing the German state because of lost profit after the government issued a moratorium for the eight oldest nuclear power stations immediately after the Fukushima nuclear disaster. E.ON is claiming 380 million euros, RWE 235 million euros.
E.ON, RWE and Vattenfall have also filed complaints with the German Constitutional Court over the decision to shut down eight nuclear power stations after Fukushima for good and to limit operating times of the remaining plants. They hope to receive compensation of more than 15 billion euros if the court finds that the move was unconstitutional.
There has also been debate over how to tear down retired reactors and manage their waste. Utilities E.ON, RWE, Vattenfall and EnBW have set aside 38 billion euros (2014) for securing and cleaning up decommissioned stations and for the long-term storage of nuclear waste, but the German parliament worries that the government would have to step in with tax-payers' money should a company go bankrupt. Politicians from the Green Party, as well as members of the Grand Coalition of the conservative Christian Democrats and Christian Social Union, and the Social Democrats, have suggested putting the money into a state-controlled fund. German media reported in May 2014 that the three big utility firms themselves suggested transferring all assets from retired nuclear power stations, including waste and reserves, into a bad bank. The Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy has issued a stress-test of power companies to see whether they will be able to afford their decomissioning and waste storage obligations.
Nuclear power in the global context
Despite the attention Germany gets, it is not the only country to phase-out nuclear energy. Italy, Belgium, Spain and Switzerland have also principally decided to become nuclear energy-free. Others such as Denmark, Ireland, Portugal and Austria will remain nuclear free. Britain, France, Poland, Finland, the Czech Republic and Hungary want to keep nuclear power in their energy mix and even plan to build new reactors. France’s president François Hollande announced in 2012 that the country will reduce its share of nuclear energy from 75 to 50 percent by 2025. Japan turned off its 50 nuclear power reactors in the wake of Fukushima, but the government decided in 2014 to start operating reactors again after a security check. In the United States, all of the 100 operational commercial reactors (producing 19 percent of the total electric energy generation in 2013) were built before 1990. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved construction of four new reactors in 2012, which are expected to go online in 2020.
The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2014 said that “the nuclear share in the world’s power generation declined steadily from a historic peak of 17.6 percent in 1996 to 10.8 percent in 2013”. The average age of operating nuclear reactors is 28.5 years. In July 2014, 67 new reactors were under construction. While the average construction time is seven years, eight of the reactors have been under construction for more than 20 years. Rising capital and operating costs are making new projects more and more unattractive. The UK is planning one of the few new nuclear projects in Europe. But the government had to guarantee the operators of Hinkley Point feed-in tariffs to make the project financially viable. Between 2000 and 2013, global investment in new power plants went mainly into renewables (57 percent), followed by fossil fuels (40 percent), while only three percent of investment was spent on nuclear energy.